G20 Summit

March 2, 2023

2 March 2023

G20 Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (New Delhi, 1-2 March 2023) CHAIR’S SUMMARY & OUTCOME DOCUMENT All G20 Foreign Ministers agreed to paragraphs 1, 2 and paragraphs 5 to 24. G20 Foreign Ministers met on 1-2 March 2023 in New Delhi at a time when the world faces multi-dimensional challenges ranging from insufficient progress towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss, to economic slowdown, debt distress, uneven pandemic recovery, growing poverty and inequality, food and energy insecurity and global supply chain disruptions, aggravated by geo-political tensions and conflicts.

G20 deliberations and macro policy cooperation provide a valuable opportunity for bringing fresh perspectives and forging durable solutions to collectively respond to contemporary global challenges.

Meeting under India’s G20 Presidency, with the theme ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ – ‘One Earth. One Family. One Future’, the G20 Foreign Ministers deliberated upon current global challenges. They brought focus on strengthening multilateralism, food and energy security, ambitious climate and environmental action, deepening cooperation on sustainable development, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, global health, global talent pool, humanitarian assistance and disaster risk reduction, as well as gender equality and women’s empowerment.

The war in Ukraine has further adversely impacted the global economy. There was a discussion on the issue. We reiterated our national positions as expressed in other fora, including the UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly, which, in Resolution No. ES-11/1 dated 2 March 2022, as adopted by majority vote (141 votes for, 5 against, 35 abstentions, 12 absent) deplores in the strongest terms the aggression by the Russian Federation against Ukraine and demands its complete and unconditional withdrawal from the territory of Ukraine. Most members strongly condemned the war in Ukraine and stressed it is causing immense human suffering and exacerbating existing fragilities in the global economy – constraining growth, increasing inflation, disrupting supply chains, heightening energy and food insecurity, and elevating financial stability risks.

There were other views and different assessments of the situation and sanctions. Recognizing that the G20 is not the forum to resolve security issues, 1 Paragraph 3 and 4 of this document, as taken from the G20 Bali Leaders’ Declaration (15-16 November 2022), were agreed to by all member countries except Russia and China. 2 we acknowledge that security issues can have significant consequences for the global economy.  It is essential to uphold international law and the multilateral system that safeguards peace and stability.

This includes defending all the Purposes and Principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and adhering to international humanitarian law, including the protection of civilians and infrastructure in armed conflicts. The use or threat of use of nuclear weapons is inadmissible. The peaceful resolution of conflicts, efforts to address crises, as well as diplomacy and dialogue, are vital. Today’s era must not be of war. Strengthening Multilateralism.  The existing international governance architecture has played a key role in promoting international cooperation on global issues. The global order has however undergone dramatic changes since the Second World War due to economic growth and prosperity, decolonization, demographic dividends, technological achievements, emergence of new economic powers and deeper international cooperation.

The United Nations must be responsive to the entire membership, faithful to its founding purposes and principles of its Charter and adapted to carrying out its mandate. In this context, we recall the Declaration on the Commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the United Nations (UNGA 75/1) which reaffirmed that our challenges are inter-connected and can only be addressed through reinvigorated multilateralism, reforms and international cooperation.

The need for revitalized multilateralism to adequately address contemporary global challenges of the 21st Century, and to make global governance more representative, effective, transparent and accountable, has been voiced at multiple fora. In this context, a more inclusive and reinvigorated multilateralism and reform aimed at implementing the 2030 agenda is essential. We will step up efforts to make a meaningful contribution for the success of the SDG Summit in September 2023, COP28 in December 2023, and the Summit of the Future in 2024. We are supportive of further deepening cooperation between the G20 and regional partners, including African partners.

We recall the Bali Leaders’ Declaration where Leaders had reaffirmed that the rules-based, non-discriminatory, free, fair, open, inclusive, equitable, sustainable and transparent multilateral trading system, with the WTO at its core, is indispensable to advancing our shared objectives of inclusive growth, innovation, job creation and sustainable development in an open and interconnected world as well as to supporting the resilience and recovery of a global 3 economy under strain due to Covid-19 and global supply chain disruption. They also agreed that reforming the WTO is key in strengthening trust in the multilateral trading system (MTS). Leaders had stated they will continue to ensure a level playing field and fair competition to foster a favourable trade and investment environment for all. In addition, Leaders had noted the importance of the contribution of the MTS to promote the UN 2030 Agenda and its SDGs. They had also commended the successful conclusion of the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference (MC12), and had committed to seize and advance the positive momentum by engaging in active, constructive, pragmatic and focused discussions on WTO reform to improve all its functions, including reform of the dispute settlement mechanism, on the path leading to the MC13.

Food and Energy Security 8. We are deeply concerned by the challenges to global food security exacerbated by current conflicts and tensions. Promoting the availability, accessibility, affordability, sustainability, equity and transparent flow of food and agricultural products including fertilizers in all corners of the globe, to fight hunger and malnutrition, is the need of the hour.

Supply chains of both food and agricultural products including fertilizers should be kept reliable, open and transparent. Promoting efficient, sustainable, inclusive and resilient agriculture and food systems is necessary to address the vulnerabilities of the developing countries. Support for increased cooperation in areas like agrobiodiversity, minimizing food loss and waste, improving soil health, climate-resilient and sustainable agriculture, connecting local, regional and international markets, and strengthening Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), as well as promoting healthy diets and nutritious foods is essential. Systems that underlie food security such as water and fertilizers, should be bolstered to ensure sustainable agriculture and durable and climate-resilient solutions. We reiterate our support for open, transparent, inclusive, predictable, and non-discriminatory agricultural trade based on WTO rules.

Recognizing that gender inequality and other factors may lead to inequitable access to food systems, special attention is required to addressing the food insecurity and malnutrition of women and girls, communities and people in vulnerable situations, as well as to unlocking their full, meaningful and effective participation in food systems. Meeting urgent humanitarian needs, supporting sustainable transformation of agriculture and food systems to make them resilient and available to smallholder and marginal farmers, and strengthening the infrastructure, logistical support and innovation needed to cultivate, store and distribute food, are necessary. We emphasize the importance of sustainable access of food grains and fertilizers to global markets. We underline the 4 importance of full, timely, improved and continued implementation by all relevant stakeholders of the Black Sea Grain Initiative and the Memorandum of Understanding between Russia and the UN Secretariat, that was brokered by Türkiye and the UN on 22 July 2022 as a package, to reduce global food insecurity and to enable unimpeded flows of more food and fertilizers to developing countries in need. 10. Undisrupted, sustainable, and resilient supply chains are important to ensure affordable, reliable and sustainable access to energy for all.

Strengthening sustainable supply chains as well as circular approaches and promoting inclusive investments are necessary to meet growing energy demand. It is essential to advance and improve energy security and sustainable, clean, affordable, inclusive and just energy transitions; promote universal, affordable energy access; accelerate adoption of renewable and clean energy sources; promote smart and clean energy technologies; increase energy efficiency; enhance transnational and regional grid connectivity; and support impacted workers and communities. Climate Change and Biodiversity .

Mindful of G20’s leadership role, we reaffirm the steadfast commitments of our Leaders, in pursuit of the objective of UNFCCC, to tackle climate change by strengthening the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement and its temperature goal, reflecting equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities in light of different national circumstances. We will play our part fully in implementing the Glasgow Climate Pact, the Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan, and the relevant outcomes of previous COPs and CMAs, including the call to parties that have not yet done so to revisit and strengthen the 2030 targets in their NDCs as necessary to align with the Paris Agreement. In this regard, we welcome enhanced climate actions resulting from the new or updated NDCs and invite parties to urgently scale up mitigation and adaptation ambition and means of implementation.

We welcome the COP 27 decision relating to funding arrangements for responding to loss and damage. Noting the IPCC assessments that the impact of climate change will be much lower at a temperature increase of 1.5°C compared with 2°C, we resolve to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C. We reiterate our commitment to achieve global net zero greenhouse gas emissions/carbon neutrality by or around mid-century, while taking into account the latest scientific developments and different national circumstances. This will require meaningful and effective actions and commitment by all countries, taking into account different approaches, through the development of clear national pathways that align long-term ambition with short and medium-term goals, and with international cooperation and support, including finance and technology, and 5 sustainable and responsible consumption and production as critical enablers, in the context of sustainable development. We recall and further urge developed countries to fulfil their commitments to deliver on the goal of jointly mobilizing USD 100 billion per year urgently by 2020 and through to 2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation action and transparency on implementation. We also support continued deliberations on an ambitious new collective quantified goal of climate finance from a floor of USD 100 billion per year taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries, that helps in fulfilling the objective of the UNFCCC and implementation of the Paris Agreement.

We commit to strengthen actions to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030. We are committed to the full and swift implementation of the KunmingMontreal Global Biodiversity Framework. We urge for increased resource mobilization from all sources, including from countries and entities, to provide new and additional financial resources for the implementation of the Global Biodiversity Framework, including to help enable and support developing country parties, and we also urge for aligning private and public financial flows with biodiversity objectives. Global Health .

As demonstrated by the Covid-19 pandemic, we are at a critical stage in global health. The threat of future pandemics is very real, and we must work collectively to institutionalize and operationalize the multi-sectoral actions needed for health emergencies prevention, preparedness, and response. Strengthening key aspects of global health architecture, with the leading and coordination role of the WHO, including our support for the process to negotiate and adopt a new pandemic instrument/accord and amendments to the International Health Regulations (2005), support for the Pandemic Fund, improving digital health, and working together with relevant international, regional and local organizations, is necessary. We need continued political attention to global health, achieving and sustaining universal health coverage, implementing the One Health approach, and combatting antimicrobial resistance. We should also work towards promoting equitable access to timely, safe, quality and affordable medical countermeasures for all, including for low and middleincome countries.

It is important to promote open, resilient, diversified, secure, efficient and reliable global supply chains across the whole value chains related to health. We reaffirm the importance of strengthening of national health systems by putting people at the center of prevention and preparedness and equipping them to respond effectively.  Development Cooperation.

Achieving SDGs of the 2030 Agenda as well as inclusive economic growth for all are critical to leaving no one behind. The impacts of current global challenges are increasingly evident worldwide and felt most acutely by the poorest and those in vulnerable situations, including women and girls. In this context, international development cooperation and partnerships, including among the developing countries, based on the spirit of multilateralism, using all available instruments and mobilizing all possible resources, an example of which was the concrete deliverables compilation in the G20 Action for Strong and Inclusive Recovery released at the Bali Summit, can play an essential role for accelerating progress in effectively achieving the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda. Development cooperation should be guided by the principle of equal partnerships, country ownership, tailored to national, regional and local needs and circumstances, taking into account best practices and guidelines. Reliable, sustainable, resilient and quality infrastructure investment is important for development cooperation. Recognizing our shared responsibilities, we underscore the need for addressing the financing gap toward implementation of the 2030 agenda, through enhancing innovative financing mechanisms, including blended finance, while noting the importance of transparency and mutual accountability.

We recall the 2022 Bali Leaders’ call to unlock further investments for the low- and middle-income and other developing countries through a greater variety of innovative financing, sources and instruments, including to catalyze private investment, to support the achievement of the SDGs. We further recall the Leaders’ Declaration’s ask to Multilateral Development Banks to bring forward actions to mobilize and provide additional financing within their mandates, to support achievement of the SDGs including through sustainable development and infrastructure investments, and responding to global challenges. G20 remains committed to support developing countries in responding to global challenges and achieving SDGs.

We recognize that clean, sustainable, just, affordable, inclusive and green transitions and economic development go hand in hand. We welcome ongoing national, regional and international efforts to provide additional financing for SDGs. New and Emerging Technologies 15. There is a growing threat from the misuse of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes. For example, new information and communication technologies have been used by terrorists for and terrorist propaganda and recruitment as well as planning and execution of terrorist attacks. To counter such threats, strengthening of international cooperation, through exchange of best practices, sharing of information and effective mutual legal assistance is crucial. International cooperation, based on respect for international 7 law and led by States and competent authorities, supplemented by engagement with various stakeholders where appropriate, would be most effective. Counterterrorism.

Recalling the Leaders’ Declaration in Antalya (2015), Hamburg (2017) and Osaka (2019), we condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including those on the basis of xenophobia, racism and other forms of intolerance, or in the name of religion or belief, recognizing the commitment of all religions to peace. It constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. We strongly condemn all terrorist acts against critical infrastructure, including critical energy facilities, and against other vulnerable targets. All acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable, regardless of their motivation, wherever, whenever and by whomsoever committed. Effective counterterrorism measures, support for the victims of terrorism and the protection of human rights are not conflicting goals, but complementary and mutually reinforcing. A holistic approach on the basis of international law can effectively counter terrorism.

The nature and scope of linkages between terrorism and organized crime, including trafficking in arms and drugs, corruption, money laundering and other crimes which may support terrorism, vary by context, and require effective criminal justice responses. Efforts to increase the effectiveness of international cooperation should be strengthened to deny terrorist groups safe haven, freedom of operations, movement and recruitment, as well as financial, material or political support. The international community should step up efforts to effectively combat these growing threats including through enhancing collective measures to counter money laundering and terrorism financing. We will also step up our fight against corruption.

We express concern about illicit trafficking and diversion of small arms and light weapons. International cooperation among States is critical to combat these phenomena, including export, import controls, and tracing. Counternarcotics 19. Countering illicit international drug supply chains, including synthetic drugs, is essential for global health and security, and requires enhanced cooperation, including through the existing, relevant international legal instruments, to counter the production, trafficking, demand for and illicit profits from these dangerous substances. Proliferation of illicit drugs and precursor chemicals should be disrupted at origin, transit, and destination points. We call for inclusive and strong international cooperation, free of unnecessary 8 restrictions, towards this end, including on capacity building and information sharing. Global skill mapping .

Digital economy and green transitions are fundamentally changing the nature of work and leading to new jobs and tasks. Skilling, re-skilling and upskilling of the workforce, particularly under-represented workers, including women, youth and persons with disabilities, is essential for reaping the benefits of the knowledge economy and technological progress and for ensuring a just transition. Well-integrated workers with adequate skills benefit origin and destination countries alike. Humanitarian assistance and Disaster risk reduction .

We are deeply anguished by the tragic loss of life and destruction across south-eastern Türkiye from the devastating earthquakes on 6 February 2023 and stand in solidarity with the Turkish people. We also convey our deepest sympathy to the Syrian people, who were likewise affected by the catastrophic earthquakes. We extend our condolences to the bereaved families. We appreciate the humanitarian assistance already being provided and call upon members and multilateral institutions to continue providing all possible assistance for recovery and reconstruction.

Humanitarian assistance and disaster risk reduction, in the face of natural disasters and other emergencies, sometimes with magnitudes beyond the response capacity of affected countries, international organizations and other stakeholders is of critical importance. In this context, there is a need to strengthen international cooperation, on humanitarian assistance and disaster risk reduction, based on humanitarian principles in UNGA Resolution 46/182, to leverage the competencies and capabilities of countries for extending such support in a coordinated, needs-based manner that complements civilian-led disaster response in the framework of existing cooperation mechanisms. It is essential to provide humanitarian assistance guided by the principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence.

International cooperation, including cooperation from a variety of public and private sources, is essential to mobilize flexible and sustainable resources, preparedness and disaster risk reduction, anticipatory and early action, rapid response and early recovery activities, as well as building community-level resilience. In addition, global coverage of early warning systems as well as 9 making infrastructure systems disaster and climate resilient will protect lives and livelihoods in vulnerable and disaster-prone developing countries. Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment.

We acknowledge the disproportionate impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic and other crises on women and girls and their central role in economic recovery and resilience. We reaffirm the need to put gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, including their leadership, at the core of efforts for inclusive recovery, including efforts to advance women’s economic participation, which is critical to economic growth. We will promote non-discriminatory, unbiased and equal access at all levels for all women to education, national and international sports, and professional opportunities, women’s entrepreneurship and leadership, financial and digital inclusion, as well as the enhancement of social, health, care and educational services. Our efforts will also include preventing and responding to gender-based and other forms of violence against women and harassment, both online and offline, as well as overcoming gender stereotypes and the uneven distribution of unpaid care and domestic work. ***** New Delhi, 2 March 2023 Link to the full article